CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE : HEALTH REPERCUSSIONS
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized as a major health problem affecting approximately 1/3rd of the population. Based on the present scenario, numbers of prevalent CKD patients will continue to rise, reflecting the growing elderly population and increasing numbers of patients with diabetes and hypertension. As numbers of CKD patients increase, primary care practitioners will be confronted with management of the complex medical problems unique to patients with chronic renal impairment.
The term “CKD is associated with mineral and bone disorders”, it comprises of abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism. CKD-associated mineral bone disorders significantly increase mortality in CKD patients. In fact, it is one of the most important risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in CKD patients. The increased cardiovascular risk associated with end stage renal disease has been well established, and estimated cardiovascular mortality rates are ten to one hundred folds higher among dialysis patients than age- and sex-matched individuals in the general population.
Hypertension is a cardiovascular risk factor which contributes to the cardiovascular risk associated with CKD. It is demonstrated that patients with hypertension are at increased risk for cardiovascular events in individuals with stage 2–3 CKD. Systolic blood pressure is more strongly associated with cardiovascular death in dialysis patients than either pulse or diastolic pressure.
Diabetes is associated with adverse outcomes in all stages of CKD. Moreover, lower fasting plasma glucose levels are associated with lower risk of mortality and reduced cardiovascular death of borderline significance in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment. Tobacco use is also associated with increased mortality and incidence of heart failure among patients with stage 5 CKD.
Several cardiovascular risk factors associated with CKD are unique to patients with this disease. CKD patients are more likely to develop congestive heart failure (CHF). Progression of CKD is associated with a number of serious health complications, including increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Treating both traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with CKD involves a multidisciplinary approach to care. Involvement of nurses, dieticians, educators and surgeons increases optimization of care.
Prevention and treatment are as important as identifying inadequate nutritional status in CKD patients. This is where the upcoming application #WatifHealth will play a ground-breaking role in health sector. The alternative solutions to individual condition will reduce cardiovascular risk and prevent or slow the progression of kidney failure.
Patients with CKD present several complex management issues to health care providers – www.watifhealth.com is your e-health provider. The guidelines in the application are an excellent tool for management of CKD and dialysis patients and recommend treatments according to disease stage. These interventions may reduce morbidity and mortality in patients. With early identification and treatment of cardiovascular disease, primary care is making significant strides toward extending and improving the lives of patients with chronic renal disease.